The rule of Constantine I. (306–337 AD) marks a pivotal moment in the history of the Roman empire. On the threshold between Principate and Late Antiquity, the Roman monarchy experienced a profound social, political, religious, and... more
The rule of Constantine I. (306–337 AD) marks a pivotal moment in the history of the Roman empire. On the threshold between Principate and Late Antiquity, the Roman monarchy experienced a profound social, political, religious, and cultural transformation. The book approaches the era focussing on the development of triumphal rulership. The attention lies on two main genera of historical sources that are analysed systematically: panegyrical texts (the Panegyrici Latini, but also the panegyrical figure poems of Publilius Optatianus and the Eusebius' tricennial oration) on the one hand and imperial coins and medallions on the other. Both Panegyrics and coins/medallions served as media of communicative interaction between the ruler and the ruled. On the basis of a close analysis of these sources, the book carves out fascinating tensions between tradition and innovation in the fields of military representation, court culture, religious change and social conflict. // —

Awards: Bruno-Snell-Preis (Mommsen-Gesellschaft); Walter-Hävernick-Preis (Numismatische Kommission) // —

Reviews: Latomus 75.2 (2016), 533—536 [Jean-Pierre Callu]; Journal of Late Antiquity 8.1 (2015), 235—237 [Noel Lenski]; KLIO 97 (2015), 360—372 [Frank Kolb]; Frankfurter Elektronische Rundschau 28 (2015), 63—71 [Raphael Brendel]; Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 5/6 (2014), 391—393 [Raimund Schulz u. Uwe Walter]; L'Antiquité Classique 83 (2014), 455—457 [Alain Chauvot]; Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 17 (2014), 1167—1177 [Horst Schneider]; Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 63 (2013), 377—385 [Kay Ehling]; Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt 9 (2013), 332—333 [Bernhard Weisser]; Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt 8 (2013), 314—315 [Karl Strobel]; H-Soz-Kult 8.4.2013 [Ulrich Lambrecht]. // —

"This is a formidable book. It demonstrates a remarkable mastery of a large and very complex body of sources. Wienand’s command of details as well as the big picture—the sweep of historical change over thirty-seven years—are heartily to be commended. In some ways, the book’s greatest virtue is also its main shortcoming. Wienand’s unflagging pursuit of precision, breadth, and depth can cause even the diligent reader to lose interest in—and track of—the argument. Overall, however, this is a very important book by a very accomplished young scholar.“
— Noel Lenski, in: Journal of Late Antiquity 8 (2015), 235—237
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The Roman triumphal procession is the most spectacular victory performance of antiquity and one of the most persistent rituals in European history. Scholarly interest in the Roman triumph was largely restricted to the Republican history... more
The Roman triumphal procession is the most spectacular victory performance of antiquity and one of the most persistent rituals in European history. Scholarly interest in the Roman triumph was largely restricted to the Republican history of the performance: there has never been a comprehensive systematic investigation into the development and functions of the triumph under the conditions of the Roman monarchy. The ritual has indeed changed its role, but well into late antiquity it has retained its status as one of the most important political performances. The present volume is the first book that systematically investigates the Roman triumph from the late Roman Republic until the end of late antiquity. From various perspectives the different book chapters show how the triumph adapted to the empire's monarchic order, how it retained its significance for imperial representation, and how it was used as a prominent stage for complex processes of social negotiation up until the Post-Roman/Early Byzantine era.
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This volume explores one of the most complex, multifaceted and momentous of all western cultural transformations: the refashioning of the Roman principate under Constantine in the early fourth century AD. It does so through the... more
This volume explores one of the most complex, multifaceted and momentous of all western cultural transformations: the refashioning of the Roman principate under Constantine in the early fourth century AD. It does so through the kaleidoscopic lens of one of antiquity’s most fascinating (and maligned) artists: Publilius Optatianus Porfyrius. Optatian’s works are little known among classicists and historians. Nevertheless, his picture-poems uniquely reflect, figure, and shape the cultural dynamics of the period. By bringing together different disciplinary perspectives the volume demonstrates how the poems give unique form to the various political, intellectual and cultural currents of the age. Contributors champion Optatian as a uniquely creative artist – and one who anticipated some of our most pressing literary critical, art historical and philosophical concerns today.
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Civil war is the most radical form of political conflict. This volume analyses the impact of civil war on society and culture in Greco-Roman antiquity. The collected papers examine phenomena such as tyrannicide, staseis and usurpations... more
Civil war is the most radical form of political conflict. This volume analyses the impact of civil war on society and culture in Greco-Roman antiquity. The collected papers examine phenomena such as tyrannicide, staseis and usurpations from the classical age to late antiquity. The focus lies on the lasting impact violence and disorder had on political discourse and memory culture. In particular, the contributions explore how internal conflicts were staged and performed. Beyond spectacular triumphal celebrations there existed a broad range of symbolic forms of communication pertaining to civil war: rituals of reconciliation, reintegration and restoration as well as acts of commemoration and condemnation. The multidisciplinary volume aims at contributing to a better understanding of the performative and communicative logic of civil conflict within the ancient societies of Greece and Rome.

The book will be available from November 2015
http://www.steiner-verlag.de/titel/60680.html
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Contested Monarchy reappraises the wide-ranging and lasting transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity. The book takes as its focus the century from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284–395), a period during... more
Contested Monarchy reappraises the wide-ranging and lasting transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity. The book takes as its focus the century from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284–395), a period during which the stability of monarchical rule depended heavily on the emperor’s mobility, on collegial or dynastic rule, and on the military resolution of internal political crises. At the same time, profound religious changes modified the premises of political interaction and symbolic communication between the emperor and his subjects, and administrative and military readjustments changed the institutional foundations of the Roman monarchy. This volume concentrates on the measures taken by emperors of this period to cope with the changing framework of their rule. The collection examines monarchy along three distinct yet intertwined fields: Administering the Empire, Performing the Monarchy, and Balancing Religious Change. Each field possesses its own historiography and methodology, and accordingly has usually been treated separately. This volume’s multifaceted approach builds on recent scholarship and trends to examine imperial rule in a more integrated fashion. With new work from a wide range of international scholars, Contested Monarchy offers a fresh survey of the role of the Roman monarchy in a period of significant and enduring change. // – – –

“This exceptionally valuable book offers multiple perspectives on the development of the institutional, ideological and religious aspects of the Roman empire’s first Christian century. Breaking away from traditional divisions according to dynasty or religion, we see how the Roman state developed new answers to the central question of its own legitimacy. Eschewing simplistic generalizations, the diverse contributions offer multiple perspectives on the way the Roman system of government interacted with its subjects. Wienand has performed an invaluable service by facilitating a wide ranging encounter among scholarly styles to promote a well-articulated discussion of significant themes in the governance of the Roman Empire, illuminating not only the period under consideration, but earlier and later periods as well.”
—David Potter, University of Michigan

Reviews

Journal of Roman Studies 106 (2016), 361-363 [Alexander Skinner]; Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2015.11.34 [Jan Willem Drijvers]; Sehepunkte 15 (2015) Nr. 11 [Adrastos Omissi]; H-Soz-Kult 18.5.2015 [Raphael Brendel]

Reviewers Quotes:

"This is a book that deepens our sense of the complexity, and unexpectedness, of the late Roman Empire. It is a landmark."
—Alexander Skinner

"Contested Monarchy is an enormously valuable volume without a weak link in its chain of articles. It is a must have for any scholar working on late Roman political, social, or religious history and for the library of any university that offers courses on the fourth century. Its depth of inquiry and range of coverage means that it will be of great value to researchers but the articles are all sufficiently accessible that advanced students will be able to gain much from them as well. The articles can be read individually, but the volume repays reading as a whole."
—Adrastos Omissi

"This is a fine collection of articles articulating the contested Roman imperial rule of late antiquity. Everybody interested in the late Roman empire will profit from it."
—Jan Willem Drijvers

CONTENTS

<Introduction>
1. Johannes Wienand: "The Cloak of Power: Dressing and Undressing the King"

<Part One: Administering the Empire>
2. John Weisweiler: "Domesticating the Senatorial Elite: Universal Monarchy and Transregional Aristocracy in the Fourth Century AD"
3. John Noël Dillon: "The Inflation of Rank and Privilege: Regulating Precedence in the Fourth Century AD"
4. Sebastian Schmidt-Hofner: "Ostentatious Legislation: Law and Dynastic Change, AD 364–365"
5. Doug Lee: "Emperors and Generals in the Fourth Century"
6. Joachim Szidat: "Gaul and the Roman Emperors of the Fourth Century"
7. Michael Kulikowski: "Regional Dynasties and Imperial Court"

<Part Two: Performing the Monarchy>
8. Mark Humphries: "Emperors, Usurpers, and the City of Rome: Performing Power from Diocletian to Theodosius"
9. Johannes Wienand: "O tandem felix civili, Roma, victoria! Civil-War Triumphs from Honorius to Constantine and Back"
10. Hartmut Leppin: "Coping with the Tyrant’s Faction: Civil-War Amnesties and Christian Discourses in the Fourth Century AD"
11. Christopher Kelly: "Pliny and Pacatus: Past and Present in Imperial Panegyric"
12. Henning Börm: "Born to Be Emperor: The Principle of Succession and the Roman Monarchy"
13. Christian Reitzenstein-Ronning: "Performing Justice: The Penal Code of Constantine the Great"

<Part Three: Balancing Religious Change>
14. Harold Drake: "Speaking of Power: Christian Redefinition of the Imperial Role in the Fourth Century"
15. Bruno Bleckmann: "Constantine, Rome, and the Christians"
16. Noel Lenski: "Constantine and the Tyche of Constantinople"
17. Steffen Diefenbach: "A Vain Quest for Unity: Creeds and Political (Dis)Integration in the Reign of Constantius II"
18. Johannes Hahn: "The Challenge of Religious Violence: Imperial Ideology and Policy in the Fourth Century"
19. Rita Lizzi Testa: "The Famous ‘Altar of Victory Controversy’ in Rome: The Impact of Christianity at the End of the Fourth Century"

<Epilogue>
20. Johannes Wienand: "The Empire’s Golden Shade: Icons of Sovereignty in an Age of Transition"
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This volume explores the various forms and effects of cultural integration and disintegration in Europe. What are the mechanisms of social, political, and religious cohesion and conflict in Europe? Unter which normative and symbolic... more
This volume explores the various forms and effects of cultural integration and disintegration in Europe. What are the mechanisms of social, political, and religious cohesion and conflict in Europe? Unter which normative and symbolic circumstances do integration and disintegration take place? What factors influence the diverse developments? Where are the boundaries to the potential for inclusion and assimilation? The interdisciplinary approach of this volume allows to explore the phenomenon in its whole complexity and thus contributes to a deeper understanding of the process of European integration.
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The volume analyses the impact and implications of religious pluralism and tolerance in Europe. The approach is interdisciplinary: history and culture, religious studies and theology, political science and sociology. Contents: - Julian... more
The volume analyses the impact and implications of religious pluralism and tolerance in Europe. The approach is interdisciplinary: history and culture, religious studies and theology, political science and sociology.

Contents:
- Julian Nida-Rümelin: Geleitwort
- Christian Augustin / Johannes Wienand / Christiane Winkler: Religiöser Pluralismus und Toleranz in Europa. Eine Vorbemerkung
- Michael Salewski: Europa, der tolerante Kontinent?
- Christa Frateantonio: Das Erbe des antiken Pluralismus
- Alexander Patschovsky: Das Erbe des Mittelalters: Intoleranz und Toleranz des Christentums
- Wolfgang Wüst: An der Konfessionsgrenze: Der frühmoderne „Ernstfall“ für Aufklärung, Toleranz und Pluralismus
- Wolfgang Benz: Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus. Die Folgen für das Verständnis von Pluralismus und Toleranz in Europa
- Rainer Forst: Toleranz und Anerkennung
- Otfried Höffe: Toleranz in Zeiten interkultureller Konflikte
- Christoph Schwöbel: Pluralismus und Toleranz aus der Sicht des Christentums. Eine protestantische Perspektive
- Angelika Hartmann: Pluralismus und Toleranz aus der Sicht des Islam
- Karl-Josef Kuschel: Kinder Abrahams: Konsequenzen für Juden, Christen und Muslime in Europa
- Jens Mattern: Ist der Dialog des Teufels? Überlegungen zu Toleranz und Pluralismus im Blick auf den jüdischen Schöpfungsgedanken
- Kocku von Stuckrad: Die Rede vom „Christlichen Abendland“: Hintergründe und Einfluss einer Meistererzählung
- Jörn Rüsen: Zivilgesellschaft und Religion – Idee eines Verhältnisses
- Gerhard Robbers: Recht, Religion und Toleranz
- Johannes Twardella: Tariq Ramadan – liberaler Erneuerer des Islam oder fundamentalistischer Denker?
- Rainer Dollase: Umfrageergebnisse zur Akzeptanz und Ablehnung des Islam und der Muslime
- Hartmut Zinser: Diskussion um das Lebensbewältigungshilfegesetz 1997/1998
- Michael Minkenberg: Demokratie und die Religion heute – theoretische und empirische Betrachtungen zu einem besonderen Verhältnis
- Claus Leggewie: Religionen und Globalisierung
- Ulrich Beck / Edgar Grande: Kosmopolitismus – Europas Weg aus der Krise
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This paper examines the role religious toleration played in the history of the early Christian monarchy in terms of praxis and political discourse, with a particular focus on the reign of the first Christian emperor Constantine 'the... more
This paper examines the role religious toleration played in the history of the early Christian monarchy in terms of praxis and political discourse, with a particular focus on the reign of the first Christian emperor Constantine 'the Great' (306-337 AD). The article starts from a close analysis of the so called Donatist controversy in northern Africa that lead to a violent clash between a military detachment and a Donatist congregation in Carthage arount 320 AD. The paper carves out that Constantine opted for religious toleration only when his policy of enforced unity failed. However, toleration here was not understood as a beneficial ruler quality. Rather, Constantine asked the parishioners of the officially recogniced 'orthodox' church finding themselves in an increasingly inferior position in certain regions of North Africa to tolerate their inner-church rivals and endure their unfavorable situation. Considering these observations, the paper sets out to draw a broader picture of how the notion of toleration was applied vis-à-vis the different religious groups in the Roman empire, in particular pagans, various Christian groups ('orthodox', 'heretic', 'schismatic'), and Jews. In order to work out the conceptual framework for such an analysis, three main approaches to the phenomenon of religious tolerance/toleration prevalent in Constantinian scholarship are put under scrutiny, among them the interpretations of Timothy D. Barnes and Harold Drake.
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In AD 274/275 the imperial mint of Serdica issued a highly unusual series of aureliani with a 'deo et domino' legend, assigning to the roman emperor Aurelian (AD 270–275) the title “god and master”. The coins are well known to scholars of... more
In AD 274/275 the imperial mint of Serdica issued a highly unusual series of aureliani with a 'deo et domino' legend, assigning to the roman emperor Aurelian (AD 270–275) the title “god and master”. The coins are well known to scholars of Roman antiquity, but the series has never been properly analyzed. This paper provides the first comprehensive and systematic investigation of the coins: A detailed technical examination (production scheme, die analysis etc.) lays the basis for a historical (re)appraisal. The paper shows that (a) the quantities of coins minted were significantly higher than expected, (b) the coins imitate characteristic features of Roman provincial coinage, and (c) they were produced for a ceremonial occasion of public largesse in the presence of the Emperor. These insights have broader implications for our understanding of the increasing tendency towards deification of the Roman emperors.

[If you want to read the paper, please feel free to contact the author]
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After serving five years as a Caesar in Gaul, Julian was prepared to fight a civil war against the emperor Constantius II to defend his claim to the title of Augustus. Yet on his way to the encounter, Constantius suddenly died, and the... more
After serving five years as a Caesar in Gaul, Julian was prepared to fight a civil war against the emperor Constantius II to defend his claim to the title of Augustus. Yet on his way to the encounter, Constantius suddenly died, and the new sole ruler Julian, the less promising candidate in the conflict, emerged as a victor devoid of a victory proper. This paper analyses the way in which Julian handled the curious succession in ideological and practical terms: What ruler image did he establish? How did he set the new government apart from the old one? How did he wish to be seen by his subjects? And how did he intend to shape and frame his empire? Noticeably, in dealing with the transformation, Julian and his new ruler clique discarded typical modes of social reintegration after civil war. Julian opted for a broadly confrontational approach, deliberately taking the risk of alienating large parts of the estab-lished administrative elite. One of his closest companions at the time, Claudius Mamertinus, described Julian’s controversial role as that of a law’s avenger. The aim of this contribution is to determine the precise function of this notion in political discourse and praxis.

The book will be available November 2015
http://www.steiner-verlag.de/titel/60680.html
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This article forms an epilogue to the volume "Civil War in Ancient Greece and Rome: Contexts of Disintegration and Reintegration" (ed. H. Börm, M. Mattheis, J. Wienand; Stuttgart 2015). The cover of this volume is adorned by a reworked... more
This article forms an epilogue to the volume "Civil War in Ancient Greece and Rome: Contexts of Disintegration and Reintegration" (ed. H. Börm, M. Mattheis, J. Wienand; Stuttgart 2015). The cover of this volume is adorned by a reworked sestertius of the emperor Caius Iulius Verus Maximinus (AD 235–238), better known to posterity as Maximinus Thrax. The epilogue is dedicated to this exceptional coin and its historical context, reflecting the key themes of this volume: The coin was originally produced as part of an extensive issue of coinage in celebration of victory over the Germans in 236 – the victoria germanica of the reverse legend. It presumably entered circulation as regular pay or as part of a special donative to a member of the imperial guard or a soldier of the legio II Parthica. It was reworked after the emperor’s death in the civil war against the senatorial emperors Pupienus and Balbinus in 238: It now showed the unfavorable end of Maximinus Thrax, whose decapitated head ended up on a pole and was paraded through the streets of Rome. This coin is thus a fascinating testimony to civil war: in striking fashion it illustrates the impact of internal and external wars on the Empire, and how such conflicts were conceived by the various protagonists. The coin is also one of the most striking examples of the damnatio memoriae of a defeated emperor. The modifications that radically altered the coin’s message cast a spotlight not only on the dramatic events of a violent regime change but also on the strategies with which those involved sought to integrate a new political and ideological order.

The book will be available November 2015
http://www.steiner-verlag.de/titel/60680.html
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This paper investigates the impact of civil war on triumphal rulership for the period from Constantine’s triumph over Maxentius in 312 to Honorius’ triumph over Priscus Attalus in 416. These victory performances mark the starting and... more
This paper investigates the impact of civil war on triumphal rulership for the period from Constantine’s triumph over Maxentius in 312 to Honorius’ triumph over Priscus Attalus in 416. These victory performances mark the starting and ending points of a series of triumphs in the city of Rome that deliberately included dramatic representations of martial achievements in civil war. I argue that the need to celebrate a civil-war victory with performances, monuments, and narratives that were formerly restricted to external victories (e.g., a triumphal procession, a triumphal arch, a battle frieze, etc.) resulted, on the one hand, from significant structural changes of the Roman monarchy in the third and fourth centuries and, on the other, from the fierce rivalry between emperors in the period of late Tetrarchic collegial rule, a situation in which a massive display of the emperor’s military achievements was an important prerequisite for the formation of loyalty and obedience within the imperial apparatus.
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"The Cloak of Power" is the introduction to the volume "Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD" (ed. J. Wienand, OUP 2015). The text introduces the reader into the background and methodology of the... more
"The Cloak of Power" is the introduction to the volume "Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD" (ed. J. Wienand, OUP 2015). The text introduces the reader into the background and methodology of the volume and explains the aims of its three sections, focusing on three distinct but mutually intertwined fields: civil and military administration, ceremony (or monarchic representation), and religion. Each of the three parts of this book is dedicated to one of these fields. All three sections refer back to the problem of legitimacy, and although they differ significantly in the ways in which they consider this phenomenon, they all seek to provide a proper understanding of how these three fields coalesce into a functionally differentiated, complex political system clustering around the central figure of the monarch. In order to understand how the three parts of this book approach the contested monarchy of the fourth century AD and how they relate to one another, the introduction also provides brief outlines of the chapters.
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This paper starts from a close analysis of a ceremonial gold coin produced in AD 346 by the Roman mint at Antioch. Seen in context, the medallion neatly encapsulates the main themes of the volume "Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman... more
This paper starts from a close analysis of a ceremonial gold coin produced in AD 346 by the Roman mint at Antioch. Seen in context, the medallion neatly encapsulates the main themes of the volume "Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD" (ed. J. Wienand, OUP 2015): administration, imperial representation, and religion. A closer look at this specific coin reveals how a fourth-century emperor had to integrate these three fields to forge the image of a ruler equal to the specific challenges of the times. The discussion of this medallion, its ceremonial context, and the political-military circumstances draws together the central subjects of this book and retraces how in the fourth century not only such precious coins but also the emperors themselves served as icons of sovereignty in an age of transition. The paper forms the epilogue to the volume.
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This paper retraces the history of the collection of ancient coins at the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (Germany). The collection comprises around 8.000 original coins and about 15.000 casts and other numismatic objects. It is... more
This paper retraces the history of the collection of ancient coins at the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (Germany). The collection comprises around 8.000 original coins and about 15.000 casts and other numismatic objects. It is thus one of the most comprehensive and diverse University collections of ancient coins in Germany. The paper provides a detailed account of the composition of the collection and examines its value for research and didactic purposes.
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This brief report introduces to the reader the Digital coin cabinet at Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (Germany). The article presents the various segments of the collection and explains the search options of the web page.
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This paper offers an in-depth analysis of the sociopolitical impact and imperial ideology regarding 'barbarians' in the age of Constantine I. (306–337 AD). This is the German-language version of a paper published in Italian in 2013.
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This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of the final heydey and subsequent disappearance of Sol invictus in the reign of emperor Constantine. This is the German-language version of a paper published in Italian in 2013.
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This paper provides a comprehensive, in-depth analysis of Constantine's dynastic policies. This is the German-language version of a paper published in Italian in 2013.
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One of the most spectacular literary sources for the reign of Constantine the Great has been largely been neglected by modern historical research: During the years 317-326 AD, the Roman senator Publilius Optatianus Porfyrius composed a... more
One of the most spectacular literary sources for the reign of Constantine the Great has been largely been neglected by modern historical research: During the years 317-326 AD, the Roman senator Publilius Optatianus Porfyrius composed a series of panegyrical pattern poems which were presented as a gift to the emperor Constantine the Great on the occasion of his vicennalia. This collection is the only contemporary textual evidence that allows us closer insight into the development of imperial court culture in these years. The aim of this paper is to carve out what the carmina can tell us about the formation of the Constantinian dynasty as one of the most profound development processes of the aetas Constantini. This requires a detailed analysis of the literary and performative dimensions of Optatian’s carmina figurata.
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The paper examines the final years of the Roman sun god Sol invictus in imperial representation, c. 310 to 325 AD. The cessation of explicit references to Sol marks a decisive step in the Christianisation of the Roman monarchy. A close... more
The paper examines the final years of the Roman sun god Sol invictus in imperial representation, c. 310 to 325 AD. The cessation of explicit references to Sol marks a decisive step in the Christianisation of the Roman monarchy. A close analysis of Sol imagery in the Constantinian coinage allows for a reassessment of this process. The minting patterns make it necessary to differentiate between billon and gold coinage: In the billon coinage, references to Sol invictus were ended abruptly in the course of a currency reform in the year 318 AD (no new Sol coins were minted, and the reform drove out from circulation the existing Sol billon coinage quickly). On the gold coinage, however, Sol survived up until 325 AD. The different patterns imply an awareness on the part of the central administration of the diverging functions of billon and gold coinage as media of imperial representation. The paper shows how the termination of Sol invictus was operated with care and counterbalanced by innovations in other fields of imperial representation, such as the ruler portrait.
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This paper examines the representations of emperor Constantine's victory over Maxentius. Usually, the incipient Christianisation of Roman imperial ideology is to the fore regarding Constantine's victory over his civil war rival in the... more
This paper examines the representations of emperor Constantine's victory over Maxentius. Usually, the incipient Christianisation of Roman imperial ideology is to the fore regarding Constantine's victory over his civil war rival in the Battle at the Milvian Bridge (AD 312). But Constantine's victory marks a critical threshold also in another respect: As a close analysis of panegyrics, imperial coins/medallions and other triumphal imagery shows, Constantinian representation deliberately blurred the traditional dividing line between two opposing concepts of triumphal rulership: victory in wars against external enemies on the one hand and victory in civil war on the other. The paper retraces in detail the Constantinian innovations in these fields and interprets them in the broader political contexts of the late Tetrarchic era.
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